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BSC 303 Abhidhamma – NOTE ON RUPAVACARA CITTA

Tác giả : Priyadarsini Mitra

ảnh chỉ dẫn

In Abhidharma Pitaka Cittas have been divided into four classes in accordance with the four planes (bhumi) or spheres (avacara) and Rupavacara citta is the one of those four divisions.The consciousness that arises mostly in the “rūpa brahma” world is called “rūpāvacara”. The rūpāvacara citta is basically classified into five according to the five jhāna stages. Then five multiplied by the three types, kusala, vipāka and kriya, comes to 15. Therefore there are 15 rupavacara cittas which are divided into three classes in the same way as the kamavacara-sobhana cittas are equally divided into kusala, vipaka and kiriya cittas.

1 Rupavacara kusala cittas – 5
rupa-jhana (moral consciousness)

2 Rupavacara vipàka cittas – 5
rupa-jhana (resultant consciousness)

3 Rupavacara kiriya cittas – 5
rupa-jhana (functional consciousness)

The Pāli term of Jhāna( Sanskrit- dhyāna) is derived from the root “jhe”, to think. Venerable Buddhaghosa explains Jhāna as follows, “Aramman’upanijjhānato paccanīkajhāpanato vajhanam”, Jhāna is so called because it thinks closely of an object or because it burns those adverse things (hindrances – nīvaranas). By Jhāna is meant willful concentration on an object. The word jhāna is used for the unity of jhāna factors. There are 5 Jhānaṅga( jhāna factors), namely, vitakka, vicara, etc.

The constitution of jhānas

1. The first jhāna that is constituted by vitakka(Initial application), vicāra(Sustained application), pīti(Joy),sukha(Happiness) and ekaggatā (One-pointedness of the object) .

2. The second jhāna that is constituted by vicāra, pīti(Joy) , sukha(Happiness )and ekaggatā(One-pointedness of the object) .

3. The third jhāna that is constituted by pīti, sukha and ekaggatā.

4. The fourth jhāna that is constituted by sukha( Happiness) and ekaggatā (One-pointedness of the object).

5. The fifth jhāna that is constituted by upekkhā(Neutral feeling) and ekaggatā.

The meaning of jhāna:

In another way, jhāna is so-called because it temporarily burns those adverse mental states. They are termed nivaraṇa in Pāḷi.

Nivaraṇa:

The Pāḷi word, nivaraṇa, is equivalent to the English word “hindrance”. Nivaraṇa is the hindrance of merit. There are five types of mental states:

1. Kāmacchanda = sensual desire

2. Byāpāda = ill will

3. Thīna-middha = sloth and torpor

4. Uddhacca-kukkucca = restlessness and remorse

5. Vicikicchā = doubt

Those five hindrances are burnt by the five jhāna factors each:

1. Thīna-middha by vitakka

2. Vicikicchā by vicāra

3. Byāpāda by pīti

4. Uddhacca-kukkucca by sukha

5. Kāmacchanda by ekaggatā

1.Rupavacara Kusala Cittas (Fine-material sphere Moral Consciousness)

The five rupàvacara kusala cittas are designated by the following:

First jhana moral consciousness together with initial application, sustained application, joy, bliss and onepointedness.

Second jhana moral consciousness together with sustained application, joy, bliss and one-pointedness.

Third jhana moral consciousness together with joy, bliss and one-pointedness. 

Fourth jhana moral consciousness together with bliss and one-pointedness.

Fifth jhana moral consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness.

A person, with nana-sampayutta rebirth consciousness and who is not yet an arahat, may develop the five rupavacara kusala cittas one after another by undertaking the samatha-bhàvanà (tranquillity-meditation)such as meditating on kasina(circle) or on respiration.

2.Rupavacara Vipaka Cittas (Fine-material Sphere Resultant Consciousness)

The five rupavacara vipaka cittas are designated by the same symbols and similar names as the five rupavacara kusala cittas.In naming the rupavacara vipaka cittas, just change ‘kusala’(moral) in the names of the rupavacara kusala cittas into ‘vipàka’(resultant).So the five rupàvacara vipaka cittas are designated by the following:

First jhana resultant consciousness together with initial application, sustained application, joy, bliss and onepointedness.

Second jhana resultant consciousness together with sustained application, joy, bliss and one-pointedness.

Third jhana resultant consciousness together with joy, bliss and one-pointedness.

Fourth jhana resultant consciousness together with bliss and one-pointedness.

Fifth jhana resultant consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness.

Rupavacara vipaka cittas are the kamma resultants of rupavacara kusala cittas. They are the rebirth-consciousness of rupa-brahmas.A person, who has acquired the first rupavacara kusala cittas and maintains it till his death, will be reborn in the first rupa-jhana level of rupa-loka with the first rupavacara vipaka citta as his rebirth consciousness.

3.Rupavacara Kiriya Cittas (Fine-material sphere Functional consciousness)

The five rupavacara kiriya cittas are again designated by the same symbols and similar names as the five rupavacara kusala cittas. Here ‘kusala’ (moral) should be changed to ‘kiriya’ (functional). So the five rupàvacara kusala cittas are designated by the following:

First jhana functional consciousness together with initial application, sustained application, joy, bliss and onepointedness.

Second jhana functional consciousness together with sustained application, joy, bliss and one-pointedness.

Third jhana functional consciousness together with joy, bliss and one-pointedness.

Fourth jhana functional consciousness together with bliss and one-pointedness.

Fifth jhana functional consciousness together with equanimity and one-pointedness.

Arahats, by undertaking samatha bhavana, may develop the five rupavacara-kiriya cittas one after another.Kiriya cittas arise instead of kusala cittas in arahats.

Hence rupavacara-kusala cittas and rupavacara kiriya cittas are experienced in the sense sphere as well as in the fine-material sphere whereas rupavacara-vipaka cittas are experienced only in the fine material sphere.

(Ghi chú: Đây là bài note của cô Priyadarsini Mitra gửi cho thi học cuối học kỳ 1 năm 2 môn BSC 303 – Abhidhamma pitaka)

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  • HT. Thích Mật Hạnh (1923-2015) - Chùa Tân An, Bình Định
  • HT. Thích Quảng Bửu (1944-2016) - Tu Viện Nguyên Thiều, Bình Định
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  • TT. Thích Huyền Châu - Giám viện Viện Phật Học Bồ Đề Phật Quốc, Hoa Kỳ
  • HT. Thích Quảng Thạc (1925-1996), Chùa An Lạc, Sài gòn
  • HT. Thích Tâm Hoàn (1924-1981), Tổ đình Long Khánh, Qui Nhơn
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  • HT. Thích Thiện Hoa (1918-1973), Việt Nam Quốc Tự, Sài gòn
  • HT. Thích Thiện Hòa (1907-1978), Chùa Ấn Quang, Sài gòn
  • Bồ tát Thích Quảng Đức (1897-11 tháng 6 năm 1963) Vị pháp thiêu thân
  • HT. Thích Tịnh Khiết (1890-1973), Chùa Tường Vân, Huế
  • HT. Thích Phước Thành (1918-2013), Chùa Thiên Phước, Bình Định
  • HT. Thích Giác Nhiên (1878-1979), Chùa Thuyền Tôn, Huế
  • HT. Thích Đỗng Minh (1927-2005), Chùa Long Sơn, Nha Trang
  • HT. Thích Hành Trụ (1904-1984), Sài gòn
  • HT. Thích Viên Định, Tổ đình Thập Tháp, Bình Định
  • HT. Thích Huệ Chiếu (1898-1965) , Tổ đình Thập Tháp, Bình Định
  • HT. Thích Trí Hải (1906-1979) - Hà Nội
  • HT. Thích Đôn Hậu (1905-1992), Chùa Thiên Mụ, Huế
  • HT. Thích Huyền Quang (1920-2008), Tu Viện Nguyên Thiều, Bình Định
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